Threat Hunting Tutorial

For this tutorial, you will install Kestrel runtime, write your first hello world hunt, investigate into a data source, apply analytics, and compose larger hunt flows.

Hello World Hunt

Installation

Make sure you have Python 3 and pip installed. The simplest way to install Kestrel is to use pip:

$ pip install --upgrade pip setuptools wheel
$ pip install kestrel-lang

If you need more control, check out the following guide on Installation for more details.

Write Your First Hunt Flow

Since you haven’t set up a data source to retrieve real-world monitored data yet, you will create some entities in Kestrel to hunt.

# create four process entities in Kestrel and store them in the variable `proclist`
proclist = NEW process [ {"name": "cmd.exe", "pid": "123"}
                       , {"name": "explorer.exe", "pid": "99"}
                       , {"name": "firefox.exe", "pid": "201"}
                       , {"name": "chrome.exe", "pid": "205"}
                       ]

# match a pattern of browser processes, and put the matched entities in variable `browsers`
browsers = GET process FROM proclist WHERE [process:name IN ('firefox.exe', 'chrome.exe')]

# display the information (attributes name, pid) of the entities in variable `browsers`
DISP browsers ATTR name, pid

Copy this simple hunt flow, paste into your favorite text editor, and save to a file helloworld.hf.

Execute The Hunt

Execute the entire hunt flow using the Kestrel command-line utility in a terminal:

$ kestrel helloworld.hf

This is the batch execution mode of Kestrel. The hunt flow will be executed as a whole and all results are printed at the end of the execution.

       name pid
 chrome.exe 205
firefox.exe 201

[SUMMARY] block executed in 1 seconds
VARIABLE    TYPE  #(ENTITIES)  #(RECORDS)  process*
proclist process            4           4         0
browsers process            2           2         0
*Number of related records cached.

The results have two parts:

  • The results of the DISP (display) command.

  • The execution summary.

Kestrel + Jupyter

Develop a hunt flow in Jupyter Notebook.

Installation

Install and set up the Kestrel Jupyter Notebook kernel:

$ pip install kestrel-jupyter
$ python -m kestrel_jupyter_kernel.setup

Creating A Hunt Book

  1. Launch a Jupyter Notebook (not Jupyter Lab, which is not fully supported yet) from the terminal:

$ jupyter notebook
  1. Start a hunt book by clicking the New button on the top left and choose Kestrel kernel:

Start Jupyter notebook with Kestrel kernel.
  1. In the first cell, copy and paste the hello world hunt flow from the section Write Your First Hunt Flow, and press Shifter + Enter to run it.

Hello world hunt in Jupyter.
  1. The result shows two process entities in the variable browsers. The DISP command is an inspection command (more in Language Specification), which prints entity information.

  2. When you get an idea of the pid associated with the firefox process, you can add another hunt step in a new notebook cell to capture the firefox process only, and then show the results.

firefox = GET process FROM browsers WHERE [process:pid = '201']
DISP firefox ATTR name, pid
  1. Run the second cell with Shifter + Enter. The result is a hunt book with two cells and the results from them.

Additional command in Jupyter.

You can put any number of hunt steps in a hunt book cell. If you need the results of some hunt steps to decide what to hunt next, you can put the some steps in one cell and execute it. After getting the results, write the following hunt steps in the next cell.

Saving A Hunt Book

Now you can save the hunt book as any Jupyter Notebook, re-execute it, edit or add more hunt steps, or share the hunt book with others.

Hunting On Real-World Data

Now it is time to hunt on real-world data. Before you start, you must identify an available data source, which can be a host monitor, an EDR, a SIEM, a firewall, etc. In the first release of Kestrel, the STIX-Shifter data source interface is included. STIX-Shifter supports lots of data sources to connect to Kestrel. Check if yours is in the supported list before you start.

Checking Data Sources

Two example data sources are described. Select from the following options to start.

Option 1: Sysmon + Elasticsearch

Sysmon is a popular host monitor, but it is not a full monitoring stack, meaning that it does not store data or handle queries. To create the queryable stack for Kestrel, set up an Elasticsearch instance to store the monitored data.

  1. Install Sysmon on a host to monitor it.

  2. Install Elasticsearch somewhere that is reachable by both the monitored host and the hunter’s machine where Kestrel and STIX-Shifter are running.

  3. Set up Sysmon ingestion into Elasticsearch, for example, wtih Logstash.

  4. Pick up an index for the data source in Elasticsearch, for example, host101. This allows you to differentiate data stored in the same Elasticsearch but are from different monitored hosts.

  5. Set up a username and password or API keys in Elasticsearch. Test API query to the Elasticsearch.

Option 2: CarbonBlack

CarbonBlack provides a full monitoring and data access stack, which can be directly used by STIX-Shifter and Kestrel.

The only task is to get an API key of the CarbonBlack Response or CarbonBlack Cloud service which is running. You also need to know whether the service is CarbonBlack Response or Cloud, which corresponds to different STIX-Shifter connectors to install.

STIX-Shifter Setup

STIX-Shifter is automatically installed when installing kestrel. However, you need to install additional STIX-Shifter connector packages for each specific data sources. Example connectors:

  • Sysmon data in Elasticsearch: stix-shifter-modules-elastic-ecs.

  • Sysflow data in Elasticsearch: stix-shifter-modules-elastic-ecs.

  • CarbonBlack Response: stix-shifter-modules-carbonblack.

  • CarbonBlack Cloud: stix-shifter-modules-cbcloud.

  • IBM QRadar: stix-shifter-modules-qradar.

For example, to access Sysmon data in Elasticsearch, install the corresponding connector:

$ pip install stix-shifter-modules-elastic-ecs

Suppose you set up an Elasticsearch server at elastic.securitylog.company.com with default port 9200. You would add the Sysmon monitored host to it as index host101. Then obtain the API ID and API key of the Elasticsearch server as VuaCfGcBCdbkQm-e5aOx and ui2lp2axTNmsyakw9tvNnw, respectively.

The Kestrel STIX-Shifter data source interface loads the information above with environment variables when querying STIX-Shifter. You must set up three environment variables for each data source. Refer to STIX Shifter Data Source Interface for more details.

$ export STIXSHIFTER_HOST101_CONNECTOR=elastic_ecs
$ export STIXSHIFTER_HOST101_CONNECTION='{"host":"elastic.securitylog.company.com", "port":9200, "indices":"host101"}'
$ export STIXSHIFTER_HOST101_CONFIG='{"auth":{"id":"VuaCfGcBCdbkQm-e5aOx", "api_key":"ui2lp2axTNmsyakw9tvNnw"}}'

Another example of the configuration for an IBM QRadar instance to connect:

$ export STIXSHIFTER_SIEMQ_CONNECTOR=qradar
$ export STIXSHIFTER_SIEMQ_CONNECTION='{"host":"qradar.securitylog.company.com", "port":443}'
$ export STIXSHIFTER_SIEMQ_CONFIG='{"auth":{"SEC":"123e4567-e89b-12d3-a456-426614174000"}}'

The configurations can be tested in STIX-Shifter directly to see whether the query translation and transmission work. Refer to STIX-Shifter documentation for more details.

Pattern Matching Against Real-World Data

Now restart Jupyter Notebook from the same terminal where environment variables are exported:

$ jupyter notebook

Write the first GET command to use STIX-Shifter data source interface. After typing the stixshifter:// URI prefix, press TAB to auto-complete the available data sources loaded from environment variables:

Listing data sources in Kestrel.

You can put up a simple pattern to search the entity pool of the Sysmon data source:

First GET command against data source.

[Empty Return] You may get an empty return. That is not bad! No error means the data source connection is set up correctly. The reason for the empty return is that by default STIX-shifter only searches the last five minutes of data if no time range is provided in the WHERE clause, and you are lucky that the data source has no matched data in the last five minutes. If this is the case, you can get data by specifying a time range at the end of the GET command, for example, START t'2021-05-06T00:00:00Z' STOP t'2021-05-07T00:00:00Z' to search for all data on the day May 6, 2021. You need to use ISO timestamp and both START and STOP keywords. Press tab in the middle of the timestamp to complete it. For more information, see the command:GET section in Language Specification.

[Python Version Issue] STIX-Shifter has compatibility issues with Python > 3.6. Test STIX-Shifter manually if Kestrel encounters a data source issue and suggests so. If the Python version is the issue, you might need to install Python 3.6, for example, sudo dnf install python3.6, and create Python virtual environment from Python 3.6 to restart.

Matching A TTP Pattern

Write a pattern to match a Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP). The TTP pattern describes a web service exploit where a worker process of a web service, for example, nginx or NodeJS, is associated with a binary that is not the web service. This happens when the worker process is exploited, and the common binary to execute is a shell, for example, bash.

A TTP pattern.

Put the TTP in a STIX pattern, match it against a Sysflow data source, and extract exploited processes from it. Specify a time range, which is highly recommended when there is no referred Kestrel variables in the WHERE clause. If no time range is given, STIX-Shifter might apply a default time range, for example, the last 10 minutes. Read more about GET in Language Specification.

Matching A TTP pattern.

Knowing Your Variables

After execution of each cell, Kestrel will give a summary on new variables such as how many entities and records are associated with it. For definitions of entity and record, see Language Specification. The summary also shows how many related records are returned from a data source and cached by Kestrel for future use, for example, Finding Connected Entities. For example, when asking the TTP pattern above, the Sysflow data source also returns some network traffic associated with the processes in the returned variable exp_node. Kestrel caches it and gives the information in the summary.

Now that you have some entities back from data sources, you might be wondering what’s in exp_node. You need to have some hunt steps to inspect the Kestrel variables. The most basic ones are INFO and DISP, which shows the attributes and statistics of a variable as well as displays entities in it, respectively. Read more about them in Language Specification.

Connecting Hunt Steps

The power of hunting comes from the composition of hunt steps into large and dynamic hunt flows. Generally, you can use a Kestrel variable in any following command in the same notebook or same Kestrel session. There are two common ways to do this:

Finding Connected Entities

You can find connected entities easily in Kestrel, for example, child processes created of processes, network traffic created by processes, files loaded by processes, users who own the processes. To do so, use the FIND command with a previously created Kestrel variable, which stores a list of entities from which to find connected entities. Note that not all data sources have relation data, and not all STIX-Shifter connector modules are mature enough to translate relation data. The data sources known to work are sysmon and Sysflow both through elastic_ecs STIX-Shifter connector. Read more in Language Specification.

Using a FIND command.

Referring to Kestrel Variables in GET

Another common way to link entities in hunt flows is to write a new GET command with referred variables. You can either GET new entities within an existing variable (a pool/list of entities similar to a data source pool of entities), or refer to a variable in the WHERE clause of GET. The former is shown in the hello world hunt. See another example of it plus an example of the latter case.

Refer to a Kestrel variable in GET.

In the first notebook cell, you GET all processes with name tweet from a Kestrel variable act (the malicious activities as the child processes of variable nc in Finding Connected Entities). Then you FIND their related network traffic and print out the information. The network traffic shows a proxy server as the destination IP.

To get the real destination IP addresses, you need to ask the proxy server or the SIEM system that stores the proxy logs, for example, siemq (QRadar) as provided to Kestrel in STIX-Shifter Setup. This is an XDR hunt that goes across host/EDR to SIEM/firewall.

Write the GET in the second notebook cell. In the WHERE clause, specify the source IP and source port to identify the network traffic. Kestrel will derive the time range for the GET, which makes the relationship resolution unique. Lastly, show the other half of the proxy traffic to the Internet using DISP.

Applying an Analytics

You can apply any external analyzing or detection logic to add new attributes to existing Kestrel variables or return visualizations. Kestrel treats analytics as black boxes and only cares about the input and output formats. So it is possible to wrap even proprietary software in Kestrel analytics. Read more about analytics in Language Specification.

Docker Analytics Setup

Kestrel ships with a docker analytics interface, plus 5 example analytics for threat intelligence enrichment via SANS API, suspicious process scoring, machine learning model testing, geolocation visualization, and data plotting. Check our kestrel-analytics repository for more details.

To use an analytics via the docker interface, you need to have docker installed, and then build the docker container for that analytics. For example, to build a docker container for the geolocation visualization analytics, go to its source code and run the command:

$ docker build -t kestrel-analytics-pinip .

Run an Analytics

Apply the analytics you built on the variable proxynt from Referring to Kestrel Variables in GET to pin IP addresses found in the variable onto a map. Before you finish typing the command, you can pause halfway at APPLY docker:// and press TAB to list all available analytics from the Kestrel docker analytics interface.

An analytics to pin IP addresses on map.

This analytics first gets geolocations for all IP addresses in the network traffic using the GeoIP2 API. Then it uses Folium library to pin them on a map. Lastly, it serializes the output into a Kestrel display object and hands it over to the analytics manager in Kestrel runtime.

Creating Your Analytics

It is simple to create your analytics, even analytics interface (see the last section in Language Specification for more details). To create a new analytics using the Kestrel docker analytics interface (more at Docker Analytics Interface), you can use the container template in the kestrel-analytics repository. After adding some meat or wrapping existing code into an analytics, build a docker container with the name prefix kestrel-analytics-. For example, the full container name for the pinip analytics we apply in the Run An Analytics section is kestrel-analytics-pinip.

Analytics are available to Kestrel immediately after they are built and can be listed in a terminal:

$ docker image ls

Forking and Merging Hunt Flows

Threat hunters might come up with different threat hypotheses to verify from time to time. And you can fork a hunt flow by running a command with a previously used Kestrel variable—the variable that is used in multiple commands are the point of fork. It is simple to merge hunt flows by merging variables like newvar = varA + varB + varC. Read more about composable hunt flows in Language Specification.

More About The Language

Congratulations! You finished this challenging full Kestrel tutorial.

To learn more about the language terms, concepts, syntax, and semantics for writing composable hunt flows, see Language Specification.